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At-risk patient—pressure injuries: Patients who have limitations in their daily living activities are at risk for developing pressure injuries, especially if they are exposed to pressure, shear, friction, or moisture.

Bony prominence: On an anatomical structure, any bony projection or elevation.

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According to the National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel (NPIAP) definition, “A pressure injury is localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.” Pressure injuries are an unfortunate and all too frequent occurrence, despite being preventable. It is estimated that approximately 2.5 million hospitalizations in the United States are due to pressure injuries. According to research by the NPIAP, up to 40% of patients will develop a pressure injury while in critical care units. However, a clinician can assist in preventing these pressure injuries by understanding which anatomic areas are most at risk.

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Pressure injuries are injuries to the skin and deeper tissues that occur due to direct pressure, shear, or friction forces. It is estimated that in the United States, 2.5 million pressure injuries occur yearly in acute care facilities alone. The price of managing a single full-thickness pressure injury is as much as $70,000, and expenditures in the United States for pressure injury treatment have been estimated at $11 billion per year.

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A pressure injury (PI) is defined as a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissues caused by pressure either alone or in combination with shear. Hospitalized patients worldwide frequently present with PIs, and these injuries can lead to prolonged hospital stays, increased medical expenses, and decreased quality of life. Often, the injuries can be preventable, and the use of a structured, validated risk assessment tool is an important initial step in PI prevention.

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Medical device-related pressure injuries (MDRPIs) are defined as injuries associated with using devices applied for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, where the injury tends to have the same configuration as the device. Individuals using medical devices are more than twice as likely to develop pressure injuries (PIs) than those who do not use medical devices. In addition to prolonged exposure to mechanical loads of the device, many medical devices that attach to the skin are based on generic designs that use stiff polymer materials and are typically secured using tape or strapping. This mismatch in mechanical properties creates deformation and stress on the tissue in contact with the devices. Furthermore, a medical device can result in an altered microclimate at the skin-device interface.

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Antibiotics have been a source of increasing concern and subsequent regulation among providers, especially those within wound care. Antimicrobial stewardship has been emphasized within the medical system in recent years as antibiotic-resistant organisms have increased globally and among at-risk patient populations.

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Antibiotics have been a source of increasing concern and subsequent regulation among providers, especially those within wound care. Antimicrobial stewardship has been emphasized within the medical system in recent years as antibiotic-resistant organisms have increased globally and among at-risk patient populations.

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The discovery of antibiotics has been associated with extending the human lifespan by 23 years. This phenomenon began in the 1900s and peaked in the 1950s, known as the "golden era" of antibiotics due to the rapid release of new antibiotic classes coupled with limited resistance. However, the gradual increase in antimicrobial resistance and associated infectious disease morbidity and mortality threatens to return the world to a post-antibiotic state where routine surgeries and minor infections become life-threatening.

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Antimicrobial: The property pertaining to any of several categories of agents that are intended to be toxic to pathogenic organisms, including antibacterials, antiprotozoals, antifungals, and antiparasitics.

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On the surface, topical antibiotics may appear to be a safe choice for some wounds, even some infected wounds, when compared to oral or intravenous options. A seemingly less dangerous adverse effect profile, less invasive nature, and potential for cost-effectiveness are logical, appealing features of topical antibiotics. However, a closer look reveals that the choice is not that simple, and, in fact, clinicians must take several points into consideration.

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