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biofilm development stages

by the WoundSource Editors

Advancements in molecular microbiology, microscopy technology, and techniques for study of bacteria have increased the ability to identify the existence of biofilms, but there still remains the unknown, such as differentiating between planktonic bacteria and biofilm.1 Chronic non-healing wounds harbor bacteria across the wound etiology classification.2–4 Malone et al. determined that the prevalence of biofilms in chronic wounds was 78.2% (confidence interval, 61.6–89, P < 0.002).2 The development of biofilms moves through a common pattern: attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. The initial attachment is reversible, but the attachment becomes stronger as cells multiply and change their gene expressions. This cell communication process is referred to as quorum sensing, allowing cells to survive.

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wound biofilm virulence

By the WoundSource Editors

Wound biofilms not only impede healing but also increase the risk of infection. It is essential that wound biofilms be addressed and treated in a prompt, consistent manner. Biofilms have been an ongoing challenge because of the majority of resistant bacteria. Research in antibiofilm technology continues to grow, and it is essential to keep up on the most recent evidenced-based practice literature for improving patients’ outcomes.

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wound infection

by the WoundSource Editors

Wound infection is a complex process that can be affected by a variety of factors, some of which inhibit the ability to heal. The first stage of healing, the inflammatory stage, is particularly susceptible to chronicity. Chronicity can be influenced by many factors, with a common contributor being the presence of infection. The wound infection continuum begins with contamination and, if left unchecked, will progress to systematic infection.

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skin microbiome

by the WoundSource Editors

The human skin microbiome is incredibly diverse and can contain up to one billion microorganisms on a single square centimeter, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and arthropods. These dynamic environments often become more complicated when wounds are present, and the types of microorganisms present near the dead and damaged tissue reduce the ability to eliminate them through normal immune responses and with standard antimicrobials.

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by the WoundSource Editors

Aerobic microorganisms: Organisms thriving in an oxygen-rich environment.

Anaerobic microorganisms: Organisms thriving in an oxygen-depleted environment.

Autolytic debridement: A selective process by which endogenous phagocytic cells and proteolytic enzymes break down necrotic tissue, occurring in varying degrees in the presence of a moist wound healing environment and dependent on the patient's having a functioning immune system.

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Palliative Care

by the WoundSource Editors

Pressure Injury/Ulcer Risk Management in Palliative Care and Hospice

Palliative care and hospice care are not the same, but they both share one goal. They both focus on a patient's physical, mental, social, and spiritual needs. Palliative care can begin at diagnosis and treatment or for patients at any stage of their illness. Patients may not want to receive aggressive treatment of non-healing wounds because of underlying diseases, pain, and/or cost.1

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by the WoundSource Editors

Calciphylaxis – A disorder—generally found in end stage renal disease but not limited to renal patients—with widespread calcification of small and medium-sized vessels that leads to occlusion, thrombosis, and tissue necrosis. Extreme cases can be life-threatening.

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