Biofilm: A complex microbial community containing bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms synthesize and secrete a protective matrix that attaches the biofilm firmly to a living or non-living surface. The biofilm contributes to underlying wound infection, chronic inflammation, and delay in healing, and it is present in 80% to 90% of chronic wounds and 6% of acute wounds.
Epibole: Rolled or curled-under closed wound edges. These rolled edges are thickened epidermis that may be callused, dry, scaly, and/or hyperkeratotic. When epibole is present in a wound, it signals to the body that the wound has healed, even though the wound remains open. Epibole must be resolved to allow the wound to close.
Exudate: Fluid drainage originating from tissue in the wound bed in response to injury or inflammation. Exudate types are serous or clear, sanguineous or bloody, purulent, or seropurulent. Exudate quantity is none, scant, small or minimal, moderate, large, or copious.